I just got myself a new roller inductor. This one is designed on the principle of a silver foil that is rolled away from and onto a ceramic form with guides for the silver form. The ceramic coil forms the coil. There is a large shorting cylinder that the unused silver foil is rolled onto. The effect of this is to significantly increase the Q of the inductor. For high power QRO applications there may either be arcing from the end of the unused part of the coil or heat loss in this part of the coil. How the unused coil is completely shorted with an inner conducting cylinder and the unused part of the coil has no flux thru it.
Experiment 1: I did an S11 analysis with my VNA on a 500pF transmitting capacitor in parallel with an airwound copper coil of good cross section. The question is how to interpret the first picture. The voltage over the parallel circuit is in phase with the drive voltage and almost as high in amplitude as the drive voltage when there is a real component present. (Blue trace, left image). The drive voltage cannot drive a current when the circuit is in steady state oscillation since the circuit has almost the same voltage over it as the drive voltage itself. Low voltage differential, results in low current. This is the definition of high impedance. Low in frequency the resultant voltage is not in phase however the voltage amplitude close to the resonance is almost as high as the drive voltage. The circuit presents a inductive load. Above the frequency there is a change from inductive to capacitive load. (Red trace). It looks like the phase changes abruptly, but I interpret it as a high impedance that occurs only due to a change from high inductive to high capacitive voltage. The phase goes “over the top” but only since someone defined capacitive reactance as minus. The impedance is still high and almost real close to resonance. |Z| represents the resistance to AC current in this context. It is the length of the R+jX vector.
Experiment 2: after that I did a S21 sweep of the same components in a series notch configuration as per VE2AZX’s paper http://www.arrl.org/files/file/QEX_Next_Issue/Jan-Feb_2012/QEX_1_12_Audet.pdf to try to determine the Q (of the coil primarily – I assumed the Q of the capacitor very high compared to the coils Q).
The second picture gives the notch depth so the Q can be calculated as per VE2AZX’s QEX paper http://www.arrl.org/files/file/QEX_Next_Issue/Jan-Feb_2012/QEX_1_12_Audet.pdf
Note1: the picture to the right is of the S21 test, not of the parallel circuit and the frequency may have changed slightly as the coil were changed between the two experiments if I recall correctly.
Note2: don’t worry about the long leads. This is an exercise in understanding the design and operation of antenna trap circuits and loss in reap circuits due to resistive losses in the inductor primarily. The leads would be almost as long in a real trap.