Importveid kursindeks. Grafen som viser om norsk krone faktisk er sterk eller svak

Norges bank beregner et geometrisk snitt (ikke aritmetrisk) av 44 valutaer som er de viktigste Norge handler med. Dette kalles importveid kursindeks (I44). Denne gir en god indikasjon på om den norske krona er sterk eller svak uten at en enkelt valuta dominerer bildet. Du kan følge med her: (Høye verdier betyr svak norsk krone). Vi ser at det helt siden 2012 har vært evekkelse, som så flatet ut på 20 tallet, for så å peake i ca 2020. Men kronen er fortsatt veldig svak. Mange mener dette skyldes bortfall av oljeøkonomien. En svak krone fører til at varene vi importerer fra utlandet blir dyrere. Dermed “importerer” vi inflasjon. Dette påvirker igjen renten. Det er mange som mener at så lenge krona er svak og vi kjøper dyrt fra utlandet så vil ikke renta kunne komme ned igjen siden Norges Bank styrer etter et inflasjonsmål og ikke lenger har pegget valutaen mot sentrale valutaer i europa.

How to use VSCODE remote debuging on a raspberry pi 3 without OS crashes

You will often encounter OS crashes when using VSCODE on a rpi3 for debugging. The cause: memory overflow and too low swap size. If you set the swap memory to 1024MB you will have solved the problem.

Follow these steps (source ->

1. Temporarily Stop Swap:

sudo dphys-swapfile swapoff

2. Modify the size of the swap

As root, edit the file /etc/dphys-swapfile and modify the variable CONF_SWAPSIZE to 1024:


Using a command such as:

sudo nano /etc/dphys-swapfile

3. Initialize Swap File

sudo dphys-swapfile setup

4. Start Swap

sudo dphys-swapfile swapo

Motorola AN-749

Motorola’s AN-749 is a classic app. note that describes the principles of broadband transformers for RF amplifiers. It also covers broadband combiners for RF amplifiers. This is a very relevant app note for amateur radio enthusiasts that want to build their own solid state amplifiers.

Simple 5V to 3.3V level shifter

If you need to interface a 3.3V logic unit to a 5V logic CPU board you may be tempted to use the traditional two resistor voltage divider. This will work, however there is an alternative solution that uses one 1N4148 (or similar) diode. When the 5V output (right side) is high, the diode blocks but the 3.3V input is still pulled up by an internal pull up. When the 5V output (right side) is low, the diode conducts and pulls down the input on the left side: 3V input –>|– 5v “output”
The illustration is snipped from

Hvordan kompilere eldre .NET / C# prosjekter fra Visual Studio i VSCODE (notes to self)

Må ha support for C# utvikling installert i VSCODE. Hvis det er et eldre prosjekt som man henter opp som er laget i Visual Studio så må man ha C# Dev kit installert siden det støtter MSBUILD projects osv.


Må sjekke at ikke det er feil versjon av dotnet som kjøres med kommando dotnet --info
Installering i et CMD vindu kan skje med winget:


X86 path kan være fær X64 path. Rekkefølgen på path prioriteres
Sjekk PATH ! IKke bare PATH for ALLE brukere, men sjekk path for DIN bruker MRK denne tutorialen fokuserer på SYSTEM PATH men det var YOUR ACCOUNT PATH som var feil 
Hvis path peker til x86 versjonen av dotnet mens du har installert dev packs osv for X64 versjonen av dotnet så får du feilmeldinger i VSCODE
Må ha core dev installert
List hva som er installert med "dotnet --list-sdks" 


Må modde .csproj fila i det opprinnelige prosjektet for å få kopmpilert med VSCODE

<Project Sdk="Microsoft.NET.Sdk">


    <PackageReference Include="System.Resources.Extensions" Version="5.0.0" />



Måtte konvertere .csprj fila til nytt format som VSCODE ville godta (fikk build feilmelding) 
Brukte dette toolet på kommandolinje:,/programming/2019/02/18/ConvertingCsProjectsToNewSdkFormat.html

dotnet tool install --global Project2015To2017.Migrate2017.Tool
conv HelloWorld.csproj

Litt mer info om konvertering til nytt CSPROJ format:

Icom tuning / ATU controls

Icom Tune Control Plug – – Credit goes to KC2WI

According to KC2WI: An easy way to put most Icom radios into 10W CW for adjusting a manual tuner is with a tune control plug. All you need to make one is a pushbutton, 10K* resistor, and 4-pin Molex connector.** Connect the 10K resistor between pins 2 & 3, and the pushbutton between pins 1 & 4.

If you add a SPST switch in series with the resistor, you can switch the radio between using or bypassing the internal tuner without having to disconnect the tune controller.

My IC-746pro will switch between internal and external tuner without power cycling the radio. When you switch the “external” tuner in, the internal tuner is bypassed, but it remembers the last setting. So you could have an antenna that is resonant at one frequency, matchable with the internal tuner on another, and matchable with an external manual transmatch on another. If your transmatch has a bypass position, you could rapidly switch between 3 different frequencies/bands without ever having to actually retune.

This may also work on some other Icoms. However, my 706 will not recognize that a “tuner” is connected unless it is connected when the radio is powered on. I haven’t tried it on other radios. See note below for the IC-7000***.

    diagram created using Kunky Schematic Drawing

Molex connector:
Radio Shack:RS 274-224
DigiKey:Connector: WM1326-ND Molex 03-09-2042 Connector Plug Housing, 4-pin
Pins for Connector: WM1100-ND Molex 02-09-2103

*For this simple pushbutton circuit you can also modify a male computer internal power connector (from a hard drive, CD drive, power extender cable, etc.). The pin spacing is identical but the keying of the housing is different. Just snip off some of the plastic from the housing so the connector fits on the radio. It won’t have the proper keying but it doesn’t matter because the connections are symmetrical.*** So you can basically make the whole thing from junk box parts.

**Other schematics show 47K or 100K.

***IC-7000 Caution: There has been some discussion about differences between the IC-7000 and other radios, and possible dangers of using tune controls designed for other Icoms on the 7000. One main issue appears to be that improper loading of or voltage on pin 1 will cause a malfunction of the fan control circuit leading to overheating. Note that pin 1 in the circuit above is open except during the tune activation. There is also a caution that connecting pin 2 to 12V is a problem because pin 2 has snubber diodes connected to the 5V bus. See the thread at AD5X presents an alternate circuit which incorporates a zener diode between pin 2 and 4 to limit the voltage ( If you build the circuit with the diode note that having a proper keyed connector becomes important. If you use it with tthe SPST int-ext switch I would put the diode between pin 4 and the switch end of the resistor rather htan direct to pin 2. Steve W3AHL has made some measurements on the IC-7000 which suggest that the resistor should be a higher value than 10K. AD5X uses 47K.


Icom Autotuner Connector pinout:

Pin 1 is the KEY pin, when the ‘TUNE’ button is pressed, it’s pulled low by the tuner to tell the radio to start transmitting. This is the green wire on the AH-4 cable.

Pin 2 is the START pin to/from the microprocessor. Under normal circumstances the START pin is pulled high when a remote tuner is attached to tell the radio that the tuner is present. When you press ‘TUNE’ the radio pulls the pin low telling the tuner to start the matching sequence. This is the white wire on the AH-4 cable.

Pin 3 is POWER rated for 1 amp max and switches on and off with the radio. This is the red wire on the AH-4 cable.

Pin 4 is ground. This is the black wire on the AH-4 cable.

Additional Information and References:

AH-4 Tuner Info – K9EQ

Manual controller AT-140 but should work for AH-4

Original pushbutton circuit – pictorial diagram at

Simple timer circuit info:

Info on KG6MVB and AB2CT timer circuits:

Credit goes to KC2WI for this info. Use at your OWN risk.